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GC-MS Analysis of Phthalates: Comparison of GC Stationary Phase Performance

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Abstract

Phthalates are ubiquitous in the environment and have attracted attention due to their potential adverse impact on human health. For this reason, detection and separation of phthalates has become a necessity. Gas chromatography is an effective approach for separating phthalates, and it can be paired with several detection techniques, including electron capture (ECD), flame ionization (FID), and mass spectrometry (MS). In this study, Pro EZGC gas chromatographic modeling software was employed to determine the optimal stationary phases and conditions for phthalate GC-MS analysis. The separation of phthalates was compared on seven different stationary phases: Rtx-440, Rxi-XLB, Rxi-5ms, Rtx-50, Rxi-35Sil MS, Rtx-CLPesticides, and Rtx-CLPesticides2 phases. In all cases, 18 EPA- and EU-listed phthalates were analyzed in less than 6 minutes. In addition, an extended list of 37 phthalates was analyzed in less than 40 minutes using an optimized method. Both Rtx-440, which is unique to Restek, and Rxi-XLB columns showed the best resolution of the complex phthalate mixture.

Introduction

Phthalates are widely used as plasticizers in a variety of industry products. However, some phthalates are considered to be endocrine disruptors [1] and are associated with a number of problems, including birth defects [2]; high blood pressure in children [3]; pregnancy-induced hypertensive heart diseases [4]; respiratory problems [5]; and obesity [6]. The European Union (EU) and United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) have restricted the use of the most harmful phthalates (Table I).

GC-MS is a commonly used technique for phthalate analysis because it is simple, fast, and inexpensive. GC-MS also provides mass spectral information, making it a powerful instrumental platform for phthalate determination. Using a GC column that provides good chromatographic separations is important because structural similarities among phthalates can make MS identification and quantification challenging. For instance, many phthalates share a common base peak ion (m/z 149), which makes identification and quantification of coeluting phthalates difficult. Technical grade mixtures and isomers further complicate the problem.

A recently published review summarized the most used GC and LC columns for phthalate analysis [7]. According to the literature, GC-MS has better chromatographic resolution compared to LC-MS for phthalate determination. The most commonly employed GC columns in descending order of popularity are 5-type, XLB-type, 35-type, 17-type, 50-type, and 1-type. The separation achieved on any stationary phase can be refined by adjusting instrument conditions, but this can be a time-consuming process when done in the laboratory. Pro EZGC modeling software can quickly optimize GC parameters (e.g., carrier gas type, flow rate, temperature program, column dimensions, and guard column) to produce the shortest analysis time on a given stationary phase. In this study, libraries of 37 phthalates (Table II) were built into the Pro EZGC program for seven stationary phases: Rtx-440, Rxi-XLB, Rxi-5ms, Rtx-50, Rxi-35Sil MS, Rtx-CLPesticides, and Rtx-CLPesticides2 phases. These stationary phases were evaluated for the analysis of both regulated and unregulated phthalates.

Experimental Chemicals

Restek’s EPA Method 8061A phthalates esters mixture (cat.# 33227), which contains 15 of the target analytes, each at a concentration of 1,000 μg/mL, was used as a primary reference standard. Benzyl benzoate (cat.# 31847) was used as the internal standard. All other phthalate standards were purchased from Chem Service.

Instrument

GC-MS analysis was performed on a Shimadzu QP2010 Plus GC-MS. The instrument was equipped with one of seven Restek columns using 30 m × 0.25 mm × 0.25 µm dimensions (0.20 µm for the Rtx-CLPesticides2 column). Windows-based Pro EZGC ROM software was used to determine optimized conditions for each column and then all columns were directly compared by analyzing samples under the single set of conditions that had produced the best overall separation. This direct comparison provides a better understanding of the differences in selectivity among the columns. Detailed column descriptions and GC-MS experimental parameters are given in Table I and Table III, respectively.

Sample Preparation

Standards were dissolved and diluted in methylene chloride. Standard solutions were prepared at 50 μg/mL (80 μg/mL for the internal standard benzyl benzoate). During sample preparation, plastics were strictly avoided; all preparation work was performed using glassware (volumetric flasks, syringes, vials, etc.).

Results and Discussion

A direct comparison of column performance for the separation of EPA- and EU-regulated phthalates was performed. Phthalate retention times on seven different phases were predicted by the Pro EZGC ROM program under the same GC conditions. These conditions, shown in Table I, were the conditions that produced the best overall chromatographic results among the separate sets of conditions that had been optimized for each column. Coelutions were defined as compound pairs with a resolution value of less than 1.5. The total analysis time was less than 6 minutes. In order to confirm the retention time predictions made by the Pro EZGC ROM software, chromatograms were collected on each stationary phase under the same conditions used by the software (Figure 1). Because the column lengths were not exactly 30 meters long, as they were in the simulation, the absolute retention times were slightly different from the predicted values; however, the elution orders and coeluting pairs were exactly the same as predicted. Rtx-440, Rxi-XLB, Rtx-CLPesticides, and Rxi-35Sil MS columns provided baseline separation for all EPA- and EU-listed phthalates. The two isomers of bis[4-methyl-2-pentyl] phthalate were not resolved on any of the seven phases. The elution order was comparable on the Rtx-440, Rxi-XLB, Rtx-CLPesticides, and Rxi-5ms columns.

Table I: Predicted Elution Times for Regulated Phthalates on Various Restek GC Columns

Column: 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 μm (0.20 μm for Rtx-CLPesticides2 column)
Constant linear velocity: 66.7 cm/sec
Oven: 200 °C (hold 0.5 min) to 330 °C (320 °C for Rtx-50 column) at 30 °C/min (hold 1 min)

Peak # Name Listed Retention Time (min) CAS # Purity
Rtx-440
(cat. 12923)
Rxi-XLB
(cat. 13723)
Rtx-
CLPesticides
(cat. 11123)
Rxi-35Sil MS (cat. 13823) Rtx-50
(cat. 10523)
Rxi-5ms
(cat. 13423)
Rtx-
CLPesticides2
(cat. 11323)
1 Dimethyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority 1.28 1.16 1.14 1.29 1.46 1.10 1.23 131-11-3 Neat
2 Diethyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 1.54 1.39 1.33 1.55 1.73 1.30 1.47 84-66-2 Neat
3 Benzyl benzoate Internal Standard 2.11 1.87 1.56 2.17 2.31 1.70 1.88 120-51-4 Neat
4 Diisobutyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 2.25 2.04 1.88 2.21 2.34 1.91 2.10 84-69-5 Neat
5 Di-n-butyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority 2.58 2.33 2.10 2.53 2.69 2.17 2.38 84-74-2 Neat
6 Bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 2.74 2.48 2.26 2.86 3.10 2.27 2.63 117-82-8 Neat
7 Bis(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate isomer 1* EPA 8061A 2.85 2.62 2.37 2.71 2.83 2.50 2.64 84-63-9 Neat
8 Bis(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate isomer 2* EPA 8061A 2.86 2.63 2.37 2.72 2.84 2.51 2.65 84-63-9 Neat
9 Bis(2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 3.08 2.80 2.51 3.13 3.33 2.59 2.90 605-54-9 Neat
10 Di-n-pentyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 3.16 2.91 2.58 3.08 3.21 2.71 2.89 131-18-0 Neat
11 Di-n-hexyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 3.73 3.46 3.07 3.61 3.69 3.25 3.42 84-75-3 Neat
12 Butyl benzyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 3.85 3.56 3.12 3.93 4.13 3.30 3.63 85-68-7 Neat
13 Hexyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate EPA 8061A 3.98 3.72 3.29 3.83 3.92 3.52 3.66 75673-16-4 Technical
14 Bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 4.12 3.82 3.39 4.08 4.21 3.60 3.85 117-83-9 Neat
15 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 4.21 3.95 3.52 4.05 4.12 3.82 3.91 117-81-7 Neat
16 Dicyclohexyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 4.33 4.04 3.55 4.42 4.58 3.78 4.08 84-61-7 Neat
17 Di-n-octyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 4.76 4.50 3.97 4.59 4.62 4.24 4.39 117-84-0 Neat
18 Diisononyl phthalate EU 5.10 4.84 4.23 4.84 4.84 4.50 4.64 68515-48-0 Isomer mix
19 Diisodecyl phthalate EU 5.20 4.95** 4.42 5.01 5.18 4.71 4.90 26761-40-0 Isomer mix
20 Dinonyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 5.24 4.95** 4.39 5.04 5.10 4.72 4.83 84-76-4 Neat

Note: Shading indicates coeluting peaks (Rs<1.5). For each column, different colors of shading indicate different coelution pairs.
*These compounds are contained in Restek’s EPA Method 8061A phthalates esters mixture (cat.# 33227).
**Peaks 19 and 20 are non-isobaric and can be separated using selected ion monitoring.

Differences in the elution orders were observed on Rxi-35Sil MS and Rtx-50 phases. Notably, the elution orders of four pairs of phthalates changed on the Rxi-35Sil MS phase, including bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate/bis(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate isomers (peaks 6 and 7/8), bis(2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate/di-n-pentyl phthalate (peaks 9 and 10), butyl benzyl phthalate/hexyl-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (peaks 12 and 13), and bis(2-butoxyethyl) phthalate/bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (peaks 14 and 15).

Rtx-440 and Rxi-XLB columns had the best overall separations under these conditions. Peaks that coeluted on other phases were well resolved on Rtx-440 and Rxi-XLB columns. Pairs that were not resolved on other phases include bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and dicyclohexyl phthalate (peaks 15 and 16) on the Rxi-5ms column; bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate and butyl benzyl phthalate (peaks 15 and 12) on the Rtx-50 column; and bis(2-methoxyethyl) and bis[4-methyl-2-pentyl] phthalate (peaks 6 and 7,8) as well as bis(2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate and di-n-pentyl phthalate (peaks 9 and 10) on the Rtx-CLPesticides2 column. In technical grade isomer mixtures, it is possible to identify isomer groups, such as diisononyl phthalate and diisodecyl phthalate (peaks 18 and 19), but it is impossible to completely resolve each individual isomer within a group. Fortunately, unique extracted ions are available for identification and quantification, e.g., m/z 293 for diisononyl phthalate, and m/z 307 for diisodecyl phthalate (Figure 1).

A more comprehensive comparison of the seven stationary phases was also conducted for the separation of 37 phthalates (a total number of 40 peaks, including three isomers) using the retention times predicted by the Pro EZGC ROM program (Table II). The GC parameters specified in Table III provided separation of 34 out of 40 peaks on both Rtx-440 and Rxi-XLB columns in less than 40 minutes and the two phases produced different coelutions. The chromatogram on the Rtx-440 column was collected and shown in Figure 2. For some pairs that were not baseline-resolved, the resolution is still adequate for qualitative analysis. There is no single set of conditions that is optimal for all phases. The program with the best overall results in terms of speed and the most peaks resolved was selected for this direct column comparison. Analysts can optimize conditions for their specific target lists using the Pro EZGC ROM program. Based on the overall analysis speed and high degree of target analyte separation, the Rtx-440 and Rxi-XLB columns are recommended for phthalate GC-MS analysis.

Table II: Predicted Elution Times for Phthalates (Extended List) on Various Restek GC Columns

Column: 30 m x 0.25 mm x 0.25 μm (0.20 μm for Rtx-CLPesticides2 column)
Constant linear velocity: 48 cm/sec
Oven: 150 °C (hold 0.8 min) to 200 °C at 5 °C/min to 275 °C at 3 °C/min (hold 2 min)

Peak # Name Listed Retention Time (min) CAS # Purity
Rtx-440
(cat. 12923)
Rxi-XLB
(cat. 13723)
Rxi-5ms (cat. 13423) Rtx-50 (cat. 10523) Rxi-35Sil MS (cat. 13823) Rtx-
CLPesticides
(cat. 11123)
Rtx-
CLPesticides2
(cat. 11323)
1 Dimethyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority 4.606 3.924 3.294 5.912 4.902 3.75 4.334 131-11-3 Neat
2 Dimethyl isophthalate 5.491 4.690 3.85 6.35 5.498 4.174 4.793 1459-93-4 Neat
3 Diethyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 6.537 5.642 4.762 7.809 6.785 5.24 6.106 84-66-2 Neat
4 Benzyl benzoate Internal Standard 9.931 8.667 N/A 11.099 N/A 6.725 8.583 120-51-4 Neat
5 Diisobutyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 11.185 10.029 8.817 11.817 11.008 9.101 10.333 84-69-5 Neat
6 Di-n-butyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority 13.152 11.850 10.405 14.031 13.094 10.481 12.029 84-74-2 Neat
7 Bis(2-methoxyethyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 14.343 12.784 11.045 17.095 15.424 11.54 13.725 117-82-8 Neat
8 Bis(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate isomer 1* EPA 8061A 15.192 13.754 12.47 15.184 14.454 12.166 13.825 84-63-9 Neat
9 Bis(4-methyl-2-pentyl) phthalate isomer-2* EPA 8061A 15.350 13.828 12.55 15.277 14.542 12.233 13.906 84-63-9 Neat
10 Bis(2-ethoxyethyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 16.910 15.132 13.199 19.063 17.59 13.186 15.875 605-54-9 Neat
11 Di-n-pentyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 17.454 15.880 13.856 17.974 17.128 13.588 15.768 131-18-0 Neat
12 Butyl cyclohexyl phthalate 19.452 17.689 15.478 21.19 19.843 14.979 17.96 84-64-0 Technical
13 Butyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate 19.823 18.172 16.174 20.062 19.238 15.566 17.958 85-69-8 Technical
14 Di-n-hexyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 22.138 20.279 17.984 22.152 21.469 17.215 19.829 84-75-3 Neat
15 Butyl octyl phthalate 22.338 20.557 18.136 22.37 21.668 17.344 20.009 84-78-6 Technical
16 Butyl benzyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 22.799 20.783 18.029 25.365 23.782 17.384 21.128 85-68-7 Neat
17 Hexyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate EPA 8061A 24.404 22.668 20.266 24.110 23.500 19.126 22.049 75673-16-4 Technical
18 Butyl isodecyl phthalate 24.632 22.793 20.392 24.220 23.685 19.424 22.22 42343-36-2 Technical
19 Bis(2-ethylhexyl)hexahydro phthalate 25.066 23.389 21.254 23.089 23.063 19.142 21.961 84-71-9 Neat
20 Bis(2-n-butoxyethyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 25.601 23.563 20.930 26.746 25.647 19.849 23.533 117-83-9 Neat
21 Dicyclohexyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 26.651 24.495 21.771 28.989 27.671 20.530 24.792 84-61-7 Neat
22 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate* EPA 8061A 26.692 24.845 22.585 25.903 25.458 21.135 24.048 117-81-7 Neat
23 Butyl-n-decyl phthalate 27.362 25.268 22.657 26.888 26.410 21.404 24.471 89-19-0 Technical
24 Diphenyl phthalate 27.987 25.712 22.372 32.277 30.170 21.614 26.473 84-62-8 Neat
25 Bis(4-methylcyclohexyl) phthalate isomer 1 28.003 25.922 23.016 29.547 28.476 21.677 25.923 59-43-8 Isomer mix
26 Bis(4-methylcyclohexyl) phthalate isomer 2 29.002 26.993 23.816 30.345 29.400 22.604 26.739 59-43-8 Isomer mix
27 Hexyl isodecyl phthalate 29.176 27.271 24.523 28.189 27.965 23.224 26.336 61702-81-6 Technical
28 Benzyl 2-ethylhexyl phthalate 29.791 27.781 24.747 31.498 30.216 23.219 27.594 27215-22-1 Technical
29 Bis(4-methylcyclohexyl) phthalate isomer-3 29.964 28.034 24.617 31.189 30.285 23.498 27.559 59-43-8 Isomer mix
30 Bis(2-ethylhexyl) isophthalate 30.132 28.037 25.684 28.133 28.243 23.907 26.648 137-89-3 Neat
31 Bis(2-(ethoxyethoxy)ethyl) phthalate 30.233 28.434 24.879 32.942 31.252 23.995 28.681 117-85-1 Technical
32 Di-n-octyl phthalate* EPA 8061A, EPA Priority, EU 31.562 29.626 26.796 30.475 30.328 24.915 28.455 117-84-0 Neat
33 n-Hexyl decyl phthalate 31.680 29.748 26.878 30.788 30.450 24.994 28.566 25724-58-7 Technical
34 Diphenyl isophthalate 32.362 29.850 N/A 34.707 32.396 25.114 29.437 744-45-6 Neat
35 Dibenzyl phthalate 33.234 30.725 27.141 37.396 35.372 25.501 31.359 523-31-9 Neat
36 Diisononyl phthalate EU 33.684 31.802 28.779 32.500 32.708 27.391 30.811 68515-48-0 Isomer mix
37 Di-n-octyl isophthalate 34.483 32.463 29.168 32.035 N/A 27.223 30.388 4654-18-6 Neat
38 Diisodecyl phthalate EU 35.775 33.792 30.876 35.041 N/A 29.11 32.169 26761-40-0 Isomer mix
39 Dinonyl phthalate* EPA 8061A 36.159 34.103 30.994 34.609 34.705 28.867 32.604 84-76-4 Neat
40 n-Octyl-n-decyl phthalate 36.182 34.170 30.961 34.664 34.7 28.861 32.628 119-07-3 Technical

Note: Shading indicates coeluting peaks (Rs<1.5). For each column, different colors of shading indicate different coelution pairs.
*These compounds are contained in Restek’s EPA Method 8061A phthalates esters mixture (cat.# 33227).

Table III: GC-MS Parameters

Parameters Values for EPA EU List Values for Extended List
Inlet temperature (°C) 280 280
Injection volume (µL) 1.0 1.0
Liner Restek Premium 3.5 mm Precision liner w/ wool (cat.# 23320.1) Restek Premium 3.5 mm Precision liner w/ wool (cat.# 23320.1)
Oven temperature program 200 °C (hold 0.5 min) to 330 °C* at 30 °C/min
(hold 1 min)
150 °C (hold 0.8 min) to 200 °C at 5 °C/min to 275 °C at 3 °C/min
(hold 2 min)
Carrier gas: He control mode Constant linear velocity: 66.7 cm/sec @ 200 °C
(3 mL/min**)
Constant linear velocity: 48 cm/sec @ 150 °C
(1.6 mL/min)
Split ratio 20:1 20:1
Detector MS MS
Mode: Full Scan (59–400) Full Scan (59–400)
Transfer line temp.: 300 °C 300 °C
Scan event time 0.1 sec 0.1 sec
Analyzer type: Quadrupole Quadrupole
Source temp.: 280 °C 280 °C
Solvent delay time: 0.9 min 2.5 min
Tune type:   PFTBA PFTBA
Ionization mode: EI EI

*320 °C for Rtx-50 column
**3 mL/min may be too high for some instruments. Consult your instrument operations manual prior to programming.

Although GC-MS is generally preferred because it provides more definitive information, phthalate analysis can also be successfully accomplished by GC-ECD. EPA 8061A is a method used to identify and quantify phthalates in aqueous and solid matrices using a parallel column configuration and dual electron capture detectors [8]. Rtx-440 and Rxi-35Sil MS columns are ideal as a parallel dual column set. The Pro EZGC software provided rapid analysis conditions using the Rtx-440 column, and the Rxi-35Sil MS column served as an excellent confirmation column, due to the elution order changes that were observed. GC-ECD conditions can be easily translated from the GC-MS methods shown in Table III using Restek’s free online EZGC method translator; alternatively, optimized GC-ECD instrument parameters and example chromatograms are available in this blog [9].

Conclusion

The seven GC columns most commonly used for phthalate analysis were directly compared using the Pro EZGC program, which provided flexibility and ease in GC optimization. The superior selectivity and high efficiency of the Rtx-440 and Rxi-XLB columns resulted in fast analysis times for both the regulated phthalates and the extended list. With good resolution, high maximum operating temperatures (340 °C for Rtx-440 and 360 °C for Rxi-XLB [Table IV]), and minimum phase bleed, the Rtx-440 and Rxi-XLB columns are the preferred choices for phthalate GC-MS analysis. A dual column set of Rtx-440 and Rxi-35Sil MS columns is recommended if GC-ECD is used instead of GC-MS.

Table IV: Maximum Temperatures

  Rtx-440
(cat. 12923)
Rxi-XLB
(cat. 13723)
Rxi-5ms
(cat. 13423)
Rtx-50
(cat. 10523)
Rxi-35Sil MS
(cat. 13823)
Rtx-CLPesticides
(cat. 11123)
Rtx-CLPesticides2
(cat. 11323)
Maximum Temperature (°C) 340 360 350 320 360 340 340

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank Shimadzu Corporation for their consultation.

References

  1. H. Choi, J. Kim, Y. Im, S. Lee, Y. Kim, The association between some endocrine disruptors and hypospadias in biological samples. J. Environ. Sci. Health, Part A: Toxic/Hazard. Subst. Environ. Eng. 47 (13) (2012) 2173–2179. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22871016
  2. N. Nassar, P. Abeywardana, A. Barker, C. Bower, Parental occupational exposure to potential endocrine disrupting chemicals and risk of hypospadias in infants. Occup. Environ. Med. 67 (9) (2010) 585–589. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19939854
  3. L. Trasande, S. Sathyanarayana, A.J. Spanier, H. Trachtman, T.M. Attina, E.M. Urbina, Urinary phthalates are associated with higher blood pressure in childhood. J. Pediatr. 163 (3) (2013) 747–753e1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4074773/
  4. E.F. Werner, J.M. Braun, K. Yolton, J.C. Khoury, B.P. Lanphear, The association between maternal urinary phthalate concentrations and blood pressure in pregnancy: The HOME Study. Environ. Health 14 (2015) 75. http://www.ehjournal.net/content/14/1/75
  5. J.J. Jaakkola, T.L. Knight, The role of exposure to phthalates from polyvinyl chloride products in the development of asthma and allergies: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Environ. Health Perspect. 116 (7) (2008) 845–853. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2453150/
  6. E.E. Hatch, J.W. Nelson, R.W. Stahlhut, T.F. Webster, Association of endocrine disruptors and obesity: Perspectives from epidemiological studies. Int. J. Androl. 33 (2) (2010) 324–332. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20113374
  7. S. Net, A. Delmont, R. Sempere, A. Paluselli, B. Ouddane, Reliable quantification of phthalates in environmental matrices (air, water, sludge, sediment and soil): A review. Sci. Total Environ. 515-516 (2015) 162–180. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25723871
  8. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Method 8061A, Phthalate Esters by Gas Chromatography with Electron Capture Detection (GC/ECD), Rev. 1, December 1996. https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-12/documents/8061a.pdf
  9. D. Li, Phthalate determination by dual column set in eight minutes, ChromaBLOGraphy, Restek Corporation, 2015. http://blog.restek.com/?p=17388

 

Figure 1: EPA- and EU-listed phthalates and internal standard (benzyl benzoate) are shown under full scan mode and selected ion scan mode (m/z 293 and m/z 307) on seven different GC stationary phases (see Table III for conditions).

Rtx-440

GC_EV1408

Rxi-XLB

cgarm-img
GC_EV1409
GC_EV1409

Rtx-CLPesticides

cgarm-img
GC_EV1414
GC_EV1414
 

Rxi-35Sil MS

cgarm-img
GC_EV1413
GC_EV1413
 

Rtx-50

cgarm-img
GC_EV1415
GC_EV1415
 

Rxi-5ms

cgarm-img
GC_EV1412
GC_EV1412

Rtx-CLPesticides2

cgarm-img
GC_EV1416
GC_EV1416

 

GNAN2380B-UNV