Restek
Resource Hub / ChromaBLOGraphy / New ProEZGC Library Drugs of Abuse and TMS-derivatives on the Rxi-5Sil MS

New ProEZGC Library: Drugs of Abuse (and TMS-derivatives) on the Rxi-5Sil MS

5 Oct 2022

Identification and monitoring of drugs of abuse is often associated with forensic science but has well established purpose in medicine and environmental sciences as well. In addition to being heavily intertwined with the law, drugs of abuse can change medical outcomes and diagnoses, and contribute to ecological shifts (especially though water contamination)1–3. Since human creativity knows no bounds, the list of drugs being monitored in various fields is continuously growing. New illicit drugs emerge frequently alongside legal pharmaceuticals and everyday products that may be misused recreationally 4. Consequently, the field of drug analysis can be, in part, exploratory. There is a balance that must be struck between identifying the drugs you know that may be in a sample, and what you may not.

Restek maintains ProEZGC libraries of common drugs of abuse that may exist in samples to help customers effortlessly refine methods in less time. This can be especially helpful for resolving co-elution between known and unknown compounds. Table 1 lists the drugs that are now included in the Rxi-5Sil MS library.

Table 1: Compounds included in the Rxi-5Sil MS Drugs of Abuse library

Amphetamine

Norcotinine

THCA-A

Zolpidem

Phentermine

trans-3-Hydroxycotinine

Δ9-THC

7-Aminoclonazepam

Methamphetamine

Secobarbital

Nordiazepam

Clonazepam

Nicotine

Diphenhydramine

Chlordiazepoxide

JWH-250

1S,2R-(+)-Ephedrine

Zonisamide

Clobazam

Estazolam

Methylephedrine

Phenobarbital

XLR-11

Alprazolam

Mephedrone

Levamisole

Benzoylecgonine

HU-211

MDA

Norcocaine

Temazepam

Zaleplon

Anabasine

MDPV

Midazolam

Triazolam

BZP

Methaqualone

Flunitrazepam

JWH-073

Diethylpropion

m-Hydroxybenzoylecgonine

7-Aminoflunitrazepam

α-Hydroxyalprazolam

Barbital

Cocaine

Prazepam

Zopiclone

MDMA

Lisdexamfetamine

Promethazine 2

JWH-018

MDEA

Cocaethylene

2-Hydroxyethylflurazepam

Norverapamil

Butalbital

Promethazine 1

N-Desmethylflunitrazepam

Droperidol

Cotinine

Oxazepam

Phenazepam

Zolpidem Phenyl-4-carboxylic acid

Methylone

Lorazepam

7-Aminonitrazepam

JWH-200

Amobarbital

Diazepam

α-Hydroxymidazolam

 

Methylphenidate

Desalkylflurazepam

Flurazepam

 

Pentobarbital

UR-144

Nitrazepam

 

The Rxi-5Sil MS is great general-purpose column for analyzing drugs of abuse, but there are some analytes that may require a stationary phase with different selectivity. Since changing columns can be complicated in high-throughput labs, derivatization is a useful technique when dealing with issues of volatility, stability, or inadequate resolution (ex: stereoisomers on an achiral column) 4. Unfortunately, it involves additional chemical reactions which introduce some layers of error and uncertainty. Derivatization reagents can also be harsh on the column phase, reducing column lifetime. Luckily, the Rxi-5sil MS is notably resilient to derivatization reagents. Trimethyl silyl (TMS) derivatization is one of the most common, and widely accepted, derivatization approaches for drugs of abuse 3,5,6. Generally, reagents such as BSTFA, TMSI, or TMCS are added to the sample in a heated, anhydrous, environment, leading to substitution of hydroxyl groups with TMS which improves peaks shapes and analyte resolutions.

Generally, retention time changes when derivatizing, which is why we are proud to introduce a collection of derivatized drugs to our Rxi-5SilMS EZGC library as well (Table 2).

Table 2: Compounds included in the Rxi-5Sil MS Drugs of Abuse (TMS) library

Pregabalin TMS derivative

Norcocaine TMS derivative

THCA-A TMS derivative

Gabapentin TMS derivative

∆-9-THC TMS derivative

Paroxetine TMS derivative

BZP TMS derivative

(-)-Dihydrocodeine TMS derivative

Clonazepam TMS derivative

MDMA TMS derivative

Dihydromorphine TMS derivative

(-)-Naloxone TMS derivative

Ritalinic acid TMS derivative

Codeine TMS derivative

Butorphanol TMS derivative

Norfentanyl TMS derivative

Norhydrocodone TMS derivative

11-Nor-9-carboxy-delta-9-THC TMS derivative

Milnacipran TMS derivative

Hydromorphone TMS derivative

Tiagabine TMS derivative

Phenytoin TMS derivative

Normorphine TMS derivative

Nalbuphine TMS derivative

Pentazocine TMS derivative

Oxycodone TMS derivative

LSD TMS derivative

Benzoylecgonine TMS derivative

Oxymorphone TMS derivative

 

These libraries will be helpful for separating the compounds you know from those you don’t, helping to streamline identification for forensic, medical, and environmental detection.

Is there a compound you wish was in the library? Let us know!

Further reading:

  1. Tamama, K. Advances in Drugs of Abuse Testing. Clinica Chimica Acta 2021514, 40–47. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cca.2020.12.010.
  2. Fontes, M. K.; Maranho, L. A.; Pereira, C. D. S. Review on the Occurrence and Biological Effects of Illicit Drugs in Aquatic Ecosystems. Environ Sci Pollut Res 202027 (25), 30998–31034. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-020-08375-2.
  3. Bisceglia, K. J.; Kroening, G.; Subedi, B. GC-MS Methods for Monitoring Illicit Drug Biomarkers in Wastewater: A Critical Review. In ACS Symposium Series; Subedi, B., Burgard, D. A., Loganathan, B. G., Eds.; American Chemical Society: Washington, DC, 2019; Vol. 1319, pp 51–77. https://doi.org/10.1021/bk-2019-1319.ch003.
  4. Lin, D.-L.; Wang, S.-M.; Wu, C.-H.; Chen, B.-G.; Liu, R. H. Chemical Derivatization for the Analysis of Drugs by GC-MS - A Conceptual Review. Journal of Food and Drug Analysis 202016 (1). https://doi.org/10.38212/2224-6614.2373.
  5. Scanferla, D. T. P.; Sano Lini, R.; Marchioni, C.; Mossini, S. A. G. Drugs of Abuse: A Narrative Review of Recent Trends in Biological Sample Preparation and Chromatographic Techniques. Forensic Chemistry 202230, 100442. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.forc.2022.100442.
  6. Daniel R. Knapp. Handbook of Analytical Derivatization Reactions; John Wiley & Sons, 1979.