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Force Performance LC Columns: Apply Force to Your LC Methods

  • Long-lasting and reproducible—even with rapid cycling and elevated UHPLC pressures.
  • Fully scalable between HPLC and UHPLC—easily transfer and optimize methods.
  • Premium quality—backed by our 100% Pure Satisfaction guarantee.
 

Restek’s new Force performance LC columns give you the power to maximize instrument uptime, increase productivity, and transfer methods across your entire lab, from your trusted-but-aged HPLC to the cutting-edge UHPLC you just plumbed last week. This incredibly rugged and supremely consistent column line represents the culmination of our twenty-plus years in LC dedicated to continually improving our phase chemistries, our lot and lifetime testing, and our bonding and packing procedures.

Meet today’s workflow needs—and prepare for tomorrow’s—by applying Force LC columns to all of your instrument platforms.

Available with Restek's most-popular and highly selective Biphenyl and FluoroPhenyl phases, as well as a general-purpose C18.

 

Biphenyl

figure-article-GNSS2598-01.jpg

C18

figure-article-GNSS2598-02.jpg

FluoroPhenyl

figure-article-GNSS2598-03.jpg

USP Phase Code

L11

L1

L43

Stationary Phase Category

Phenyl

C18, octadecylsilane

Pentafluorophenyl propyl

Ligand Type

Biphenyl

End-capped C18

Fluorophenyl

Particle Size

1.8 µm, 3 μm, or 5 μm
fully porous

1.8 µm, 3 μm, or 5 μm
fully porous

1.8 µm, 3 μm, or 5 μm
fully porous

Pore Size

100 Å

100 Å

100 Å

Surface Area

300 m2/g

300 m2/g

300 m2/g

Carbon Load

15%

20%

10%

End-Cap

yes

yes

no

pH Range

2.0 to 8.0

2.0 to 8.0

2.0 to 8.0

Maximum Temperature

80 °C

80 °C

80 °C

 

Apply Force LC Columns to your LC Methods…for Longer Column Life

Elevated pressures and rapid pressure cycling put extreme stress on your LC column and shorten its life. And when the demand to increase lab productivity meets the growing pressure limits of modern LCs and the faster cycle times of new methods, many competitor columns simply can’t survive. Force LC columns from Restek are designed and manufactured to handle high-pressure, high-stress conditions. Whether you’re running a 3 or 5 μm column on an older HPLC or a 1.8 μm on the newest UHPLC in your lab (Figures 1 & 2), your method will give you the same separation from one injection to the next when you trust your workflow to the extended lifetime of a Force LC column.

Figure 1: At over 10,000 psi, you may be used to seeing a drop in efficiency, but Force LC columns will take the pressure.

1,000 injections and still going strong at high pressure.

Figure 2: Rapid changes in pressure place more stress on a column than even high pressures can, but Force LC columns will handle repeated analyses with no change in separation. You get stable retention times and peak shapes even with rapid cycling!

LC_FF0568
PeaksSIR (m/z)
1.Daidzin417.2
2.Genistin433.2
3.Daidzein255.1
4.Genistein271.1
ColumnForce C18 (cat.# 9634252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Guard Column:UltraShield UHPLC precolumn filter 0.2 µm (cat.# 25810)
Temp.:50 °C
SampleCustom mix
Diluent:Water
Conc.:500 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:2 µL
Mobile Phase
A:Water + 0.1% formic acid
B:Acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.68515
1.500.6595
1.510.68515
3.000.68515
Max Pressure:500 bar
DetectorMS
Interface:ESI+
InstrumentUHPLC

Apply Force LC Columns to your LC Methods…for Improved Reproducibility

Once you set up and validate a workflow, you move on to developing the next new method. You don’t have time to repeatedly revisit past methods because your chosen column is giving you different results with each lot. Peak shapes and retention times need to be maintained over the lifetime of your workflow to ensure consistent results, reduce unplanned downtime, and preserve your own productivity. Force LC columns have the lot-to-lot reproducibility you need to rely on (Figure 3)—backed by Restek’s strict QC system and our 100% Pure Satisfaction guaran­tee—so that you are free to focus your energy on what’s next.

Figure 3: Whether a standard C18 or our FluoroPhenyl with its innovative new bonding process, each subsequent Force column you order will give you the same outstanding performance as the first.

Force C18

LC_FF0567
PeaksSIR (m/z)
1.Daidzin417.2
2.Genistin433.2
3.Daidzein255.1
4.Genistein271.1
ColumnForce C18 (cat.# 9634252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:50 °C
SampleCustom mix
Diluent:Water
Conc.:500 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:2 µL
Mobile Phase
A:Water + 0.1% formic acid
B:Acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.68515
1.500.6595
1.510.68515
3.000.68515
Max Pressure:500 bar
DetectorMS
Interface:ESI+
InstrumentUHPLC
 

Force FluoroPhenyl

LC_FS0510
PeaksPrecursor IonProduct IonProduct Ion
1.Nitrofurantoin239.1121.995.0
2.Nitrofurazone199.1107.954.0
3.Furazolidone226.295.067.0
4.Nifuroxazide276.2121.093.0
ColumnForce FluoroPhenyl (cat.# 9639252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:40 °C
Sample
Diluent:Water
Conc.:50 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:5 µL
Mobile Phase
A:0.1% Acetic acid in water
B:Methanol
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.47030
1.500.4595
1.510.47030
3.500.47030
DetectorMS/MS
Ion Mode:ESI+
Mode:MRM
InstrumentUHPLC

Apply Force LC Columns to your LC Methods…for Complete Scalability

To accelerate time to market, analysts will often develop methods on fast UHPLC instruments using sub-2 μm particle columns. But, the methods must then be scaled to match the analysis time and pressure limitations of the traditional HPLCs and the 3 or 5 μm columns that will actually be doing the work. To make this transition easier and ensure consistent results, Force LC columns are available in three particle sizes that are manufactured on the same silica support with the same properties to reliably and easily provide the same separation on any instrument platform (Figure 4).

And, of course, it works both ways: fully scalable Force LC columns also make it easy to update conventional HPLC methods to UHPLC instruments to increase sample throughput and reduce solvent consumption and waste disposal costs.

Figure 4: With identical isocratic flow rates, 5, 3, and 1.8 μm Force columns still offer the same results. (If using a gradient, simple equations can help you adjust slope and time points.) Scaling doesn’t get easier than that! Notice that peak shape and plate number improve as particle size decreases—ideal for increased MS sensitivity.

LC_GN0574
PeakstR (min)
1.Uracil0.456
2.Toluene2.904
3.Naphthalene3.939
4.Biphenyl5.971
ColumnForce, 100 x 2.1 mm (see above for particle sizes)
Temp.:30 °C
SampleUHPLC RP test mix
Diluent:Water:acetonitrile (50:50)
Inj. Vol.:2 µL
Mobile Phase
A:Water
B:Acetonitrile
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.44555
8.000.44555
DetectorPDA @ 254 nm
InstrumentUHPLC

Force LC Columns at Work: Time-Tested Restek Biphenyl Phase

The established choice for pharmaceutical testing since 2005

 
  • Separates compounds that other phenyl and C18 chemistries can’t.
  • Allows the use of simple, MS-friendly mobile phases.
  • Restek’s most popular LC phase.
 
Properties:
  • Increased retention for dipolar, unsaturated, or conjugated solutes.
  • Enhanced selectivity when used with methanolic mobile phase.
  • Ideal for increasing sensitivity and selectivity in LC-MS analyses.
 
Switch to a Biphenyl when:
  • Limited selectivity is observed on a C18.
  • You need to increase retention of hydrophilic aromatics.

Column Interaction Profile

Defining Solute Interactions:
  • Polarizability
  • Dispersion
 
Complementary Solute Interaction:
  • Cation exchange

Solute Retention Profile

Target Analyte Structures:
  • Aromatic
  • Dipolar
 
Target Analyte Functionalities:
  • Hydrophilic aromatics
  • Strong dipoles
  • Lewis acids
  • Dipolar, unsaturated, or conjugated compounds
  • Fused-ring compounds with electron withdrawing groups
 
 

Figure 5: Whether for therapeutic drug monitoring or toxicology, Force Biphenyl columns were made for applications where fast, reliable identi­fication of drugs and metabolites could be a matter of life and death.

LC_CF0677
PeakstR (min)Precursor IonProduct IonProduct Ion
1.Morphine-3-β-D-glucuronide0.70462.1286.0152.1
2.Morphine1.26286.1164.9152.0
3.Morphine-6-β-D-glucuronide1.34462.1286.0152.1
4.Morphine-N-oxide1.41302.1284.9161.9
5.6-Acetylmorphine1.86328.1211.1165.0
ColumnForce Biphenyl (cat.# 9629252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:35 °C
Sample
Diluent:0.1% Formic acid in water
Conc.:50 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:5 µL
Mobile Phase
A:0.1% Formic acid in water
B:0.1% Formic acid in methanol
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.58515
0.500.58515
2.000.53070
2.010.58515
4.000.58515
DetectorMS/MS
Ion Mode:ESI+
Mode:MRM
InstrumentUHPLC

Figure 6: Accurate quantification is critical for cardiac drugs due to their narrow therapeutic range, and the Restek Biphenyl phase on a Force LC column is the ideal choice.

LC_CF0675
PeakstR (min)Precursor IonProduct IonProduct IonPolarity
1.Digoxin0.95798.4651.4355.1+
2.Flecainide1.28415.3397.9300.9+
3.Furosemide1.32329.0205.2285.1-
4.Verapamil1.68455.1165.2150.0+
5.Digitoxin1.85782.4635.2243.1+
6.Amiodarone3.17646.158.186.2+
ColumnForce Biphenyl (cat.# 9629252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:40 °C
Sample
Diluent:Water:acetonitrile (90:10)
Conc.:100 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:2 µL
Mobile Phase
A:Water + 5 mM ammonium formate + 0.1% formic acid
B:Acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.36040
3.500.3595
3.510.36040
5.50.36040
DetectorMS/MS
Ion Mode:ESI+/ESI-
Mode:Scheduled MRM
InstrumentUHPLC

Force LC Columns at Work: General-Purpose Restek C18 Phase

Force column dependability, scalability, and quality in a C18

 
  • Wide pH range provides excellent data quality for many applications.
  • Offers high hydrophobic retention.
 
Properties:
  • Compatible with moderately acidic to neutral mobile phases (pH 2–8).
  • Excellent data quality in food, environmental, bioanalytical, and other applications.

Switch to a C18 when:
  • You need a general-purpose column for reversed-phase chromatography.
  • You need to increase retention of hydrophobic compounds.

Column Interaction Profile

Defining Solute Interaction:
  • Dispersion

 


Solute Retention Profile

Target Analyte Structure:
  • Hydrocarbons
 
Target Analyte Functionality:
  • Hydrophobic compounds

 

Figure 7: A C18 is a common first choice for method developers, and as shown here for these isoflavones commonly found in nutraceuticals, a Force C18 column is the C18 to choose.

LC_FF0566
PeakstR (min)SIR (m/z)
1.Daidzin0.622417.2
2.Genistin0.949433.2
3.Daidzein1.174255.1
4.Genistein1.314271.1
ColumnForce C18 (cat.# 9634252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:50 °C
SampleCustom mix
Diluent:Water
Conc.:500 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:2 µL
Mobile Phase
A:Water + 0.1% formic acid
B:Acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.68515
1.500.6595
1.510.68515
3.000.68515
Max Pressure:500 bar
DetectorMS
Interface:ESI+
InstrumentUHPLC
 

Tech Tip: Small-Particle Column Protection

Protecting your column is always recommended. Restek offers EXP guard column cartridges for our 3 and 5 µm Force LC columns, but for 1.8 µm columns, where the additional volume of a guard is an issue, reach for the UltraShield UHPLC PreColumn filter with 0.2 μm frit. Its minimal dead volume (1 µL) makes it recommended for UHPLC up to 15,000 psi.



Figure 8: You can pair a 1.8 μm Force column with an UltraShield pre­column filter to prolong column lifetime—without significantly altering retention times.

LC_FF0569
PeaksSIR (m/z)
1.Daidzin417.2
2.Genistin433.2
3.Daidzein255.1
4.Genistein271.1
ColumnForce C18 (cat.# 9634252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Guard Column:UltraShield UHPLC precolumn filter 0.2 µm (cat.# 25810)
Temp.:50 °C
SampleCustom mix
Diluent:Water
Conc.:500 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:2 µL
Mobile Phase
A:Water + 0.1% formic acid
B:Acetonitrile + 0.1% formic acid
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.68515
1.500.6595
1.510.68515
3.000.68515
Max Pressure:500 bar
DetectorMS
Interface:ESI+
InstrumentUHPLC

Force LC Columns at Work: Reliably Versatile Restek FluoroPhenyl Phase

Get the power of HILIC and RP modes in one LC column

 
  • Capable of both reversed-phase and HILIC separations.
  • Ideal for increasing sensitivity and selectivity in LC-MS analyses.
  • Offers increased retention for charged bases.

Properties:
  • Capable of both reversed-phase and HILIC separations.
  • Ideal for increasing sensitivity and selectivity in LC-MS analyses.
  • Offers increased retention for charged bases.

Switch to FluoroPhenyl when:
  • Limited retention and selectivity are observed on a C18 for basic compounds.
  • You need increased retention of hydrophilic compounds.

Column Interaction Profile

Defining Solute Interactions:
  • Cation exchange

 

Complementary Solute Interactions:
  • Polarizability
  • Dispersion
 

Solute Retention Profile

Target Analyte Structure:
  • Nitrogen
 

Target Analyte Functionality:
  • Protonated amines
  • Quaternary ammonium compounds
  • Positively charged moieties
  • Lewis bases
 

 

Figure 9: Xanthine analysis can be performed in clinical settings, in sports to target misuse, or even in food analyses. A Force FluoroPhenyl column offers fast, simultaneous analysis of multiple compounds including isobars paraxanthine and theophylline.

LC_CF0672
PeakstR (min)Conc.
(ng/mL)
Precursor IonProduct IonProduct Ion
1.Theobromine1.5350181.13137.95163.01
2.Theophylline1.7950181.13124.0296.03
3.Paraxanthine1.9550181.13124.0296.03
4.Caffeine2.3350195.09138.01110.03
ColumnForce FluoroPhenyl (cat.# 9639212)
Dimensions:100 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:40 °C
Sample
Diluent:70:30 Water:methanol
Conc.:50 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:5 µL
Mobile Phase
A:0.1% Formic acid in water
B:Methanol
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.37030
2.50.33070
3.00.30100
3.010.37030
5.00.37030
DetectorMS/MS
Ion Mode:ESI+
Mode:MRM
InstrumentUHPLC

Figure 10: Restek's Force FluoroPhenyl column makes quick and effective work of nitrofurans, which are often used in animal feed as antibiotics/antimicrobials but are also banned in many regions.

LC_FS0507
PeakstR (min)Precursor IonProduct IonProduct Ion
1.Nitrofurantoin0.94239.1121.995.0
2.Nitrofurazone0.99199.1107.954.0
3.Furazolidone1.12226.295.067.0
4.Nifuroxazide1.40276.2121.093.0
ColumnForce FluoroPhenyl (cat.# 9639252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:40 °C
Sample
Diluent:Water
Conc.:50 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:5 µL
Mobile Phase
A:0.1% Acetic acid in water
B:Methanol
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.47030
1.500.4595
1.510.47030
3.500.47030
DetectorMS/MS
Ion Mode:ESI+
Mode:MRM
InstrumentUHPLC

Figure 11: A common antidiabetic, metformin is difficult to retain using typical reversed-phase conditions, but with its HILIC capability, a Force FluoroPhenyl column provides suitable results in less than three minutes and reduces potential ion suppression caused by early-eluting matrix interferences.

LC_CF0671
PeakstR (min)Precursor IonProduct Ion Product Ion
1.Metformin1.00130.371.060.1
ColumnForce FluoroPhenyl (cat.# 9639252)
Dimensions:50 mm x 2.1 mm ID
Particle Size:1.8 µm
Temp.:40 °C
Sample
Diluent:Acetonitrile
Conc.:100 ng/mL
Inj. Vol.:2 µL
Mobile Phase
A:0.1% Formic acid in water
B:0.1% Formic acid in acetonitrile
Time (min)Flow (mL/min)%A%B
0.000.63070
1.50.69010
1.510.63070
2.50.63070
DetectorMS/MS
Ion Mode:ESI+
Mode:MRM
InstrumentUHPLC

 

SPP or FPP?

Superficially porous particles (SPP) are becoming increasingly popular for providing faster, more efficient analyses without UHPLC pressures. And when speed is your goal, Restek recommends the Raptor line of LC columns (www.restek.com/raptor).

However, retention is often just as important to sharpen peaks and increase sensitivity for mass spec, and when that is the case, fully porous particle (FPP) Force LC columns are ready to be put to work.

Either way, Restek has a high-performing, reliable LC column for you.

SPP

FPP

 

GNSS2598-UNV

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Choosing Your LC Stationary Phase

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Choosing Your LC Particle

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