Author(s): Emanuela Gionfriddo1,2,3, German Augusto Gómez-Ríos4
1. Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, College of Natural Sciences and Mathematics, The University of Toledo, 2. School of Green Chemistry and Engineering, The University of Toledo, 3. Dr. Nina McClelland Laboratory for Water Chemistry and Environmental Analysis, The University of Toledo, 4. Restek Corporation
Published By: The Journal of Mass Spectrometry
Year of Publication: 2020
Abstract: Because of the complexity and diversity of food matrices, their chemical analysis often entails several analytical challenges to attain accurate and reliable results, especially for multiresidue analysis and ultratrace quantification. Nonetheless, microextraction technology, such as solid‐phase microextraction (SPME), has revolutionized the concept of sample preparation for complex matrices because of its nonexhaustive, yet quantitative extraction approach and its amenability to coupling to multiple analytical platforms. In recent years, microextraction devices directly interfaced with mass spectrometry (MS) have redefined the analytical workflow by providing faster screening and quantitative methods for complex matrices. This review will discuss the latest developments in the field of food analysis by means of microextraction approaches directly coupled to MS. One key feature that differentiates SPME‐MS approaches from other ambient MS techniques is the use of matrix compatible extraction phases that prevent biofouling, which could drastically affect the ionization process and are still capable of selective extraction of the targeted analytes from the food matrix. Furthermore, the review examines the most significant applications of SPME‐MS for various ionization techniques such as direct analysis in real time, dielectric barrier desorption ionization, and some unique SPME geometries, for example, transmission mode SPME and coated blade spray, that facilitate the interface to MS instrumentation.